International Agreements Regarding Air Pollution

1.77 We are aware of the magnitude of the challenges in terms of waiting and measuring environmental outcomes with respect to pollution caused by ships, particularly with regard to the vastness of the maritime areas concerned. The Department indicated that, although the United States has provided estimates of the effectiveness of MARPOL, it is not aware of other countries that have been successful in assessing the impact of MARPOL on the actual amounts of oil released into their waters, intentionally or otherwise. In this context, the government needs to be more transparent and make it clear to Canadians what progress it reasonably expects. 1.85 The conduct of the spring. Fisheries and Oceans Canada is the lead federal agency that is responsible for UNFA. The agreement is implemented in Canada primarily through the Coastal Fisheries Protection Act and its regulations, legislative means to control fishing vessel access to Canadian waters and activities in Canadian waters. Key federal programs and activities supporting the agreement include fisheries science, integrated fisheries management plans, marine monitoring programs, enforcement programs and international negotiations to advance Canadian interests in internationally exploited fish stocks. In addition, the main light reference agreements have also been grouped according to general environmental themes according to the structure of the situation plan. 1.105 The agreement. The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, particularly as a Waterbird Habitat (the Ramsar Convention), was adopted in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971. The agreement entered into force internationally in 1975 and Canada became a contracting party in 1981. The member countries of the Convention have a total of 138 in May 2004 and represent all geographical regions of the world. The purpose of the audit was to determine whether federal governments know to what extent the specific objectives of certain international environmental agreements are being achieved.

1.132 In our case studies, we found that responsible departments have different information and knowledge about achieving the environmental objectives and outcomes of their agreements. We found that the departments were aware of the environmental results for two agreements (the Montreal Protocol and the Ozone Annex), were unaware of the results for two others (MARPOL and Ramsar) and were partially aware of an agreement (UNFA). We found that, for the Montreal Protocol and the Ozone Annex, the expected results were clearly defined and the results measured. The important thing for the success of the Convention on Reducing Air Pollution was its solid scientific foundation. This was created by the development of a common knowledge base, including a scientific infrastructure, which aims to pool monitoring and modelling programs, including a vast international network of scientists from different disciplines. In addition, the Convention provided scientists and policy makers with a platform for information exchange that led to innovative approaches. 1.100 Fisheries and Oceans Canada, however, has emphasized that setting conservation targets is a complex process based on international negotiations and that THE UNMS did not enter into force until 2001.

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